Технические и экологические аспекты новых требований к эксплуатационным свойствам перспективных моторных масел
V. A. Zolotov
(FAE «The 25th State Research Institute of Chemmotology of Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation», Moscow)
Keywords: transport, exhaust gas toxicity, fuel economy, automotive engine oils, lubricants, oil viscosity, engine.
Abstract. The modern development of transport is at the stage of energy transition to its zero-carbon operation with the use of alternative energy sources instead of traditional liquid fuel. It is assumed that the operation of transport using electric motors and hydrogen fuel cells in the future will be able to represent a significant segment of the global economy. Manufacturers of heavy-duty vehicles and buses are currently actively investing in so-called carbon neutrality technologies and are activating the technical capabilities of options for using electric vehicles for heavy operating conditions.
At the same time, along with the electrification of vehicles, the popularity of traditional piston internal combustion engines remains, including in hybrid car models. The new environmental regulations Euro-7, which are part of the European «Green Agreement», include stricter emission standards for all gasoline and diesel cars, vans, trucks and buses. This is part of the EU’s commitment to support the goal of achieving carbon neutrality by 2050.
In connection with the latest achievements in the design of diesel engines, the development of a new category of PC-12 engine oil for heavy-duty diesel engines is officially underway in order to replace the oils of the existing categories CK-4 and FA-4 according to API. The category of oils in the projected specification is planned to be divided into subcategories that provide conditions for their use in heavy-duty transport: off-road conditions, including those with a high temperature load, assuming a high oil viscosity at 150 oC and a shear rate of 106 s-1 (High Temperature High Shear — HTHS), and highway operation.
It is assumed that the new PC-12 specification will provide increased thermal-oxidative stability of oils and improved compatibility with elastomers in both subcategories, as well as wear tests with the inclusion of new methods.