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9/10-2009

CONTENTS

Introductory article by chief editor V.M. Shkol'nikov and professor O.F. Glagoleva
From oil well to gasoline can !

ACCENT of the ISSUE: diesel fuels
Mitusova T.N.
Modern condition of diesel fuel production. Quality requirements
Keywords: diesel fuel, regulations.
Of late years an increase in diesel fuel consumption is observed worldwide, and its quality requirements become simultaneously tougher. In the Russian Federation two standards on diesel are in force: the GOST 303-82 and the GOST R 52368-2005. The last meets requirements of the European standard EN 590. The basic stimuli to an increase in EURO-class diesel fuels manufacture are requirements of foreign buyers and enactment of the technical regulations. At the same time, the automotive fleet consists of technics being more than 10-15 years old, thus demanding diesel made in accordance with GOST 305 with sulfur content up to 0.2 percent.

Mitusova T.N.
Modern state of production of additives to diesel fuels. Quality requirements
It is known that without application of additives it is impossible to produce diesel fuel corresponding to Euro-class. Conditionally additives can be divided into two types:
– For quality upgrading of diesel fuels to meet requirements of the standard. These are antiwear, cetane-raising and depressant-dispersion additives;
– Improving operational properties of fuels above specification requirements and thus giving to fuel special quality, i.e. a distinctive name.
Today refineries in Russia at Euro-class diesel fuels manufacture use only additives, without use of which it is impossible to get a standard fuel. But as national diesel market grows, so to stand the competition is only possible if producing high-quality diesel fuel containing a multipurpose package of additives.

Bai Sou Chzhu, Boronov N.O.
Improvement of diesel fuel quality at the Daqing Refinery in People's Republic of China
Keywords: diesel fuel, sulfur content, catalysts.
Consideration is given now in China to ecological properties improvement of diesel fuels with the view of environmental harm reduction. Hydrotreatment catalysts of new generation developed by the Chinese Academy of Sciences do not lose compared to foreign analogues and allow getting diesels with sulfur content up to 0.005 percent.

IN SIGHT
Kapustin V.M., Chernysheva E.A.
Modern condition and development prospects of processes dealing with heavy petroleum fractions and residues
Keywords: fuel oil manufacture, ways of residues processing, prospects of deepening the oil refining.
Now interest to problems of processing and rational use of oil residues and heavy oils grows. It is due to several tendencies in oil refining. First of all, this is an increase of heavy sulphurous oils percent, which give residues of unsatisfactory quality (high sulfur, metals, asphaltenes and tars content), with simultaneous toughening the ecological requirements to oil products quality.

PRODUCTS and TECHNIQUES
Vezirov R.R., Tikhonov A.A., Obukhova S.A., Vezirova N.R., Sultanov T.H.
Reconstruction of delayed coking unit
Keywords: reconstruction, operating parameters, products yield.
At one of Romanian Refineries having a delayed coking unit of atmospheric residue, as a result of transferring from low-sulfur Romanian atmospheric residues to sulfurous vacuum residues of Urals oil there was a necessity for reconstruction of the unit to increase overall performance, reduce coke yield and abate harmful substances exhausts to atmosphere and water.

Irisova K.N., Kuznetsov A.S., Smirnov V.K.
Catalysts for cracking and hydrocracking on the basis of faujasite and pentasil zeolites. Cracking on alumina catalysts containing zeolites Y
Keywords: catalysts for cracking of oil fractions, high-Silica zeolite Y.
Mechanisms of vacuum gas oil cracking on alumina catalysts containing zeolites Y with various phase and chemical composition are investigated; influence of residual sodium oxide concentration, and also quantity of aluminium atoms in elementary cell and structural silicate module of zeolites Y on catalytic activity and octane number of gasoline fraction gained is appreciated; relation between catalytic activity and the zeolite component content is found; behaviour of catalytic systems under different process conditions analysed.

Mel'nikov V.G.
Factors influencing lubricant layer thickness and maximal velocity load persistence of oils and greases in resilient dynamic contacts
Keywords: RD Contact, effective viscosity, thickness of lubricant layer, maximal velocity load persistence, lube starvation.
Factors (rolling speed, contact pressure, effective viscosity), influencing the thickness of lubricant layer formation of greases and their dispersive medium (base oils) in concentrated resilient dynamic contacts being analysed. It is shown that within a usual speed range, up to the speed of so-called lube starvation, main rheology difference of plastic greases from lube oils consists in that viscosity of greases is function of rolling speed (a gradient of shear rate), and viscosity of oil does not depend on speed. It is also shown that the contact pressure influences the thickness of lubricant layer, thickness of layer at lube starvation and maximal velocity load persistence.

Kravtsov A.V., Shnidorova I.O., Ivashkina E.N., Fetisova V.A., Ivanchina E.D.
Development of computer modelling system as a tool for efficiency increase of linear alkylbenzene manufacture process
Keywords: linear alkylbenzene, alkylation, mathematical model, kinetic parameters, computer modelling system.
Thermodynamic probability of target and side reactions passing is estimated at liquid-phase catalytic alkylation of benzene by the highest olefines with use of quantum-chemical techniques of thermodynamic functions calculation. The schedule of hydrocarbons transformation made with use of these calculations results is put as a basis for mathematical model construction of alkylation reactor. The technique of kinetic parameters search is offered and realized stage by stage. The developed computer modelling system is sensitive to composition of processed feed and process conditions, which makes it efficient in solving problems at work optimization of linear alkylbenzene production plant.

ECOLOGY
Stolypin V.I., Panteleev D.V., Molchanov S.A., Zubanova E.A., Volchenko A.G.
Technology perfection of liquid hydrocarbon gases in Gazprom dobycha Orenburg to make their quality meet the international standards requirements
Keywords: quality of gases, international standard EN 589:2004.
Quality of liquefied hydrocarbon gases manufactured now on gas-processing and helium plants of Gazprom dobycha Orenburg Ltd, does not meet the requirements of the international standards in total sulfur content index. Introduction of the developed technical decisions at helium plant has allowed to reach a sulfur compounds level according to requirements of standard EN 589:2004.

QUALITY: DOCUMENTS and COMMENTS
Shkol’nikov V.M., Krakhmalyov S.I., Platonova R.G.
Legitimacy of structure and name change of plastic greases of commodity assortment and use of such greases in mechanics

Osokin O.V.
Practice of trade marks protection by example of TNK-ВР HOLDING OJSC

STUDYNG TOGETHER
Mitusova T.N., Nepomnyaschaya E.V.
Ship fuels. Lecture 2. Basic performance characteristics
Keywords: viscosity, combustion heat, low-temperature properties, flammability, sulfur, water, mechanical impurities, ash content, stability.
The assortment of domestic ship fuels is considered:
- Naval black oils F 5 and F 12 in accordance with GOST 10585,
- Low-viscous ship fuel with TU 38.101567-2005,
- High-viscous ship fuel E with TU 38.1011314-2001,
- Ship fuel (ISO 8217) with TU 38.401-58-302-2001,
and requirements to their quality observed.

PORTRAITS
Bogdanova T.I.
Main stages of scientific and technical activity of Yu.N. Shekhter - Honoured Inventor of Russia, expert in protective materials development and manufacture (to the 75th anniversary)

BRANCH and PERSONNEL
Uryavin S.P., Timoshenko A.N., Kozlov A.N.
The certification center for aircraft petroleum products of GOSNIIGA State Enterprise: yesterday, today and future plans

CONFERENCES. SEMINARS. EXHIBITIONS
The 1st Murmansk international economic forum (October 2009)
The 10th Moscow international exhibition OIL AND GAS /MIOGE 2009 and the 7th Russian Oil and Gas Congress /RPGC (June 23-26, 2009)

MATERIALS of the PETROCHEMICAL and REFINERS ASSOCIATION
The board meeting record of Petrochemical and Refiners Association of 10.06.09. / Realization of decisions of PRA board, conferences, work groups directed to liquidation of import-addiction of Russia/

List of articles published in the Journal in 2008

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