Composition and properties of base oils for the preparation of high-quality motor oils

DOI 10.32758/2071-5951-2020-0-01-42-46

Abbasov V.M., Aliyev B.M., Hasanova R.Z., Abdullayev S.E., Mamedov A.M., Nabiyeva N.D., Kafarova N.F.

(Institute of Petrochemical Processes named after academician Yu.G. Mamedaliev of the National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan) E-mail: lab.21@mail.ru

Состав и свойства базовых масел для приготовления высококачественных моторных масел

Keywords: synthetic oils, semi-synthetic oils, mineral oils, physicochemical properties, structural-group composition, PMR spectroscopy.

Abstract

The article gives the physicochemical and structural-group characteristics of synthetic, semi-synthetic and mineral oils of foreign companies and for comparison, the indicators of semi-synthetic oil of the SAE15W-40 type, prepared in the Institute of Inorganic Chemistry of Azerbaijan, are used. using base oil from Balakhani oil with a foreign additive package.

The preparation of mineral oil of group I is carried out by extraction and dewaxing processes. Most of the sulfuric, aromatic and nitrogenous compounds are removed from the vacuum gas oil with a selective solvent, then dewaxing is carried out (paraffins are precipitated and filtered) and the dewaxed oil is subsequently subjected to hydrotreatment.

To obtain group II oils, the process begins with the vacuum gas oil being passed through the first hydrocracking reactor at a very high pressure. In the second reactor (catalytic dewaxing), the wax molecules are converted to isoparaffins and then the remaining aromatic compounds are saturated again – group II oils are obtained.

To obtain group III oils, a rigorous process is carried out in a hydrocracking reactor. The hydrocracking and hydroisomerization catalyst consists of alumina and silica in layers: silica – aluminum – zirconium composite material.

Synthetic oils are produced as a result of directed petrochemical synthesis. Samples of synthetic oils of various companies (Lexus, Comma, Rektol) are slightly different from other samples of semi-synthetic and mineral oils (Castrol, Nordiks) have high viscosity index values, low pour point.

Semi-synthetic oils have been developed at the Institute of Chemical Economy of ANAS using dearomatized samples of oils from Balakhani oil with the content of aromatic hydrocarbons from zero to 10% as a base component. The viscosity index of dearomatized mineral base components is in the range 62-76.7, i.e. It does not even reach 80 units in comparison with analogues.

The structural-group composition of the oils was investigated using PMR spectroscopy. The spectra were recorded on a Bruker pulsed Fourier spectrometer (Germany) at an operating frequency of 300.18 MHz in a solution of deuterated chloroform at room temperature. The relative content of protons of various structural groups was determined by integrating the corresponding resonance absorption bands.

It was found that in terms of the structural group composition, dearomatized mineral base oils differ from hydrocracking oils and highly purified neutral oil SN-180 in a lower hydrogen content in paraffin structures.

The PMR spectroscopy was used to study the structural parameters (the distribution of hydrogen by structural groups, as well as the Nparaf./Nnaft. ratio) of the base oil components – highly purified mineral T-46, synthetic and semi-synthetic. It was shown that a low level of the viscosity index (<80) of the mineral base component in the structure is associated with the ratio Hparaf./Nnaft. – 3.19-3.73. An increase in the viscosity index of the base component is possible by adding a synthetic component of 10-20%, to obtain a semi-synthetic base component with viscosity index ≥90, where Nparaf./Nnaft. rises to 4.34-4.60.

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